‘Of the people, for the people and by the people’
The Constitution of India or Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna is the supreme law of India. The Constitution of India comprises 448 articles in 25 parts 12 schedules, 5 appendices, and 115 amendments. At the time of framing the constitution, our constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules but got amendments since then. Our constitution includes fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, fundamental rights, directive principles, and fundamental duties along with various other articles. One of the most unique features of the constitution of India is that it is the longest written constitution in the world. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, who was the chairman of the drafting committee at that time is also known as the father of the constitution of India. He is widely considered to be its chief architect because he drafted the whole constitution of India.
On November 26, 1949, the constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly and it came into effect on January 26, 1950. This is the reason why India celebrates 26 January as Republic Day. Since the constitution of India was created by a constituent assembly and not by the Parliament, it is conducted as constitutional supremacy, not as parliamentary supremacy.
The constitution of India declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic, assuring its citizens’ justice, equality and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity. In 1976, the words “secular” and “socialist” were included to the preamble amid the Emergency
The preamble of the constitution of India states that:
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
And to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION
Some Interesting facts about the Constitution of India:
It Is the Longest Constitution of any sovereign nation in the World. At present, it has a Preamble, 22 parts with 448 articles, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 115 amendments.
The Constitution is originally available in Hindi and English and the interesting fact is that it wasn’t typed or printed. The whole constitution was handwritten in both the versions i.e. Hindi and English. We can thus say that it is the longest handwritten constitution of any country in the world.
Prem Behari Narain Raizada has written the original Constitution of India in a flowing italic style with beautiful calligraphy. The original Constitution page is uniquely decorated with beautiful pictures. These pictures were made by the artists of Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose.
As stated earlier we have two versions of the constitution (Hindi and English) handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada that are stored and kept in special helium-filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India.
It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to prepare the final draft of the constitution after the first Constituent Assembly, which was held on December 9, 1946. When the first draft was presented, around 2,000 Amendments were made and put up for debate and discussion. After the amendments, the final draft was presented and adopted on January 26, 1950.
Useful Articles of the Constitution of India:
- Article No. 1:- Name and territory of the Union
- Article No. 3:- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states
- Article No. 13:- Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights
- Article No. 14:- Equality before the law
- Article No. 16:- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
- Article No. 17:- Abolition of untouchability
- Article No. 19:- Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
- Article No. 21:- Protection of life and personal liberty
- Article No. 21A:- Right to elementary education
- Article No. 25:- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
- Article No. 30:- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
- Article No.40:- Organisation of village panchayats
- Article No. 44:- Uniform Civil Code for the citizens
- Article No. 45:- Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of 6 years.
- Article No. 51:- Promotion of international peace and security
- Article No. 51A:- Fundamental Duties
- Article No. 72:- Powers of President to grant pardons, suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
- Article No. 74:- Council of Ministers to aid and advice the President
- Article No. 76:- Attorney-General of India
- Article No. 78:- Duties of the Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.
- Article No. 110:- Definition of Money Bills
- Article No. 112:- Annual Financial Statement (Budget)
- Article No. 123:- Power of President to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament
- Article No. 143:- Power of President to consult Supreme Court
- Article No. 148:- Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
- Article No. 149:- Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
- Article No. 155:- Appointment of the Governor
- Article No. 161:- Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
- Article No. 163:- Council of Ministers to aid and advice the Governor
- Article No. 168:- Constitution of Legislatures in the states
- Article No. 169:- Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in the states
- Article No. 170:- Composition of Legislative Assemblies in the states
- Article No. 171:- Composition of Legislative Councils in the states
- Article No. 172:- Duration of State Legislatures
- Article No. 174:- Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
- Article No. 178:- Speakers and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
- Article No. 194:- Powers, privileges, and immunity of Advocate-General
- Article No. 200:- Assent to bills by the governor (including reservation for President)
- Article No. 214:- High courts for the states
- Article No. 217:-Appointment and the conditions of the office of the judge of a High Court
- Article No. 226:- Power of high courts to issue certain writs
- Article No. 239AA:- Special provisions with respect to Delhi
- Article No. 243B:- Constitution of Panchayats
- Article No. 243C:- Composition of Panchayats
- Article No. 243G:- Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
- Article No. 243K:- Elections to the Panchayats
- Article No. 249:-Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest
- Article No. 275:- Grants from the Union to certain states
- Article No. 280:- Finance Commission
- Article No. 300:- Suits and proceedings
- Article No. 312:- All-India Services
- Article No. 315:- Public Service Commission for the Union and for the states
- Article No. 320:- Functions of Public Service Commissions
- Article No. 335:- Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts
- Article No. 352:- Proclamation of Emergency (National Emergency)
- Article No. 356:- Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in states (President’s Rule)
- Article No. 360:- Provisions as to Financial Emergency.
- Article No. 365:- Effect of failure to comply with or to give effect to, directions given by the Union (President’s Rule)
- Article No. 368:- Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor
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