# Practice Statement and assumption Questions and Answers

## Statement & Arguments

Statement and Arguments is a very important part of Analytical reasoning as all possible types of questions from analytical reasoning like inferences, assumptions, course of action, syllogism etc., are in some way related to argumentations. This is the reason why arguments are called the backbone of analytical reasoning. Hence, it forms an integral part of the reasoning syllabus of many important competitive exams like SEBI Grade A, IBPS SO, IBPS PO, SSC, SBI PO, RBI Grade B, RRB, PFRDA and many others.

### What is Statement & Arguments?

An argument is a statement or series of statements in which a certain point of view is given, expressing different views for or against something. In other words, argument is a point of view on a particular issue supported by certain evidence.

Here, the candidates are required to check the forcefulness of the given arguments, i.e., if they are strong or weak. However, a positive or negative of an argument is a view on a certain subject, supported by evidence.

The statements could be based on various issues like-

Technical Aspect of an Argument

Technically, an argument may be said to be a sequence of two or more phrases, clauses, sentences that includes a claim/conclusion. Such conclusions are arrived at with the assistance of one or more than one statement which may be called a premise/preposition. Apart from this, an argument also has some hidden premises which are called ‘assumptions’.

Let’s look at an example-

• Statement 1- Dhoni is a big blaster.
• Statement 2- A big blaster is able to score 26 runs in 6 balls.
• Statement 3- India will win the match.

This example explains the basic characteristics of argumentation but it also raises some doubts.

This raises two questions-

• Does an argument always have an assumption?
• Does an argument always have one premise?

The short answer is, no.

Let’s understand this in detail.

• To answer the first question, it is not necessary that every argument has an assumption.
• It’s important to keep in mind that an assumption is a hidden premise (not explicitly said) and is the missing link in the chain of logic and if an argument is complete in itself and does not have missing links, then it does not have an assumption.
• The answer to the second question also exists in the same argument as it has three premises.
• Premise 1- India needs 26 runs to win the match.
• Premise 2- Only a big blaster like Dhoni can do it.
• Premise 3- So, India will win.
• Now, we can firmly say that it is not necessary for an argument to have only one premise always but it can have more than one premise.

Forcefulness of Arguments

Checking the forcefulness means to find out the following-

• Is the given argument strong?
• Is the given argument weak?

Characteristics of Arguments

Types of Questions

Based on the type of questions asked in competitive exams, they can be classified into the following types-

Let’s understand both the types in detail-

Two Arguments Based Questions

In such types of questions, a statement is followed by two arguments and the candidates are asked to examine the forcefulness of both the arguments.

Let’s understand with the help of an example-

Q1) Statement- Should parents in India in future be forced to opt for only one child as against two or many at present?

Arguments-

I. Yes, this is the only way to check the ever increasing population of India.

II. No, this type of pressure tactic is not adopted by any other country in the world.

a. If only Argument I is strong

b. If only Argument II is strong.

c. If either I or II is strong

d. If neither I or II is strong

e. If both I and II is strong

Solution: (d)

Explanation: Argument I is weak because it is superfluous. It does not go into the reason for population control. Argument II is an argument by example and hence, it is weak.

Q2) Statement- Should there be only a uniform rate of income tax irrespective of the level of income?

Arguments-

I. Yes, this will substantially reduce the work of the officials of the income tax department.

II. No, this will reduce government tax collection to a large extent.

a. If only Argument I is strong

b. If only Argument II is strong.

c. If either I or II is strong

d. If neither I or II is strong

e. If both I and II is strong

Solution: (b)

Explanation: Argument I is weak because reduction of workload of IT officials is not too desirable a motive. Argument II is strong as reduced tax collection will have a bad impact on state activities.

Three or More Arguments Based Questions

In this type, the questions consist of a statement followed by three or more arguments. These arguments are based on some stated facts or any other aspect to support the statement. A candidate will be asked to check the forcefulness of these arguments and accordingly select the correct option.

Let’s look at an example-

Q1) Statement- Should the minimum age of marriage for boys be brought down to 18 years?

Arguments-

I. No, an 18 year old boy is not capable of taking responsibility to start a family.

II. Yes, since the minimum age for marriage for girls is 18 years, the same should be applicable for boys as well.

III. No, the boys should be allowed to marry only after they become independent.

a. Only Argument I is strong

b. Only Argument II is strong

c. Only Argument III is strong

d. Only either I or II is strong

e. None of these

Solution: (a)

Explanation: Only Argument I holds strong to support the statement. Argument II shows the comparison between girls and boys, so it is weak. Furthermore, Argument III is weak.

Q2) Should the consumption of aerated drinks be banned in India?

Arguments-

I. Yes, this is the only way to reduce the risk of exposing people to some diseases.

II. No, each individual should have the right to choose what they want.

III. No, there is no confirmed evidence that such products have adverse effects on the human body.

IV. Yes, it is banned in many countries also.

a. Only Argument I is strong

b. Only Argument I and II are strong

c. Only Argument III is strong

d. Only argument I and IV are strong

e. All the Arguments are strong

Solution: (c)

Explanation: Argument I is weak due to the word ‘only’. Argument II is weak because it is baseless and Argument III is strong because there is no confirmed evidence that such products have adverse effects on the human body. Argument IV is not strong because we should not follow blindly what other countries are doing.

Sample Question on Statement & Arguments

Q1) Statement- Should India encourage exports, when most things are insufficient for internal use?

Arguments-

I. Yes, we can earn foreign exchange to pay for our imports.

II. No, even selective encouragement would lead to shortages.

a. If only Argument I is strong

b. If only Argument II is strong.

c. If either I or II is strong

d. If neither I or II is strong

e. If both I and II is strong

Solution: (a)

Explanation: Clearly, India can export only the surplus and that which can be saved after fulfilling its own needs, to pay for its imports. Encouragement to export cannot lead to shortages as it shall provide the resources for imports. So, only argument I will follow.

Q2) Statement- Should India make efforts to harness solar energy to fulfill its energy needs?

Arguments-

I. Yes, most of the energy sources used at present are exhaustible.

II. No, harnessing solar energy requires a lot of capital, which India lacks.

a. If only Argument I is strong

b. If only Argument II is strong.

c. If either I or II is strong

d. If neither I nor II is strong

e. If both I and II is strong

Solution: (a)

Explanation: Harnessing solar energy will be helpful as it is an inexhaustible resource unlike other resources. So, only argument I will follow. However, argument II is vague as solar energy is the cheapest form of energy. So, argument II is weak.

Q3) Statement- Should there be a complete ban on celebration of various ‘days’ in colleges?

Arguments-

I. No, there is nothing wrong in celebrating the ‘days’ and enjoying once in a while.

II. Yes, children are giving more importance to such celebrations than studies.

III. No, this type of celebration gives an opportunity for children to express their feelings.

a. Only Argument I & II are strong

b. Only Argument II & III are strong

c. Only Argument III is strong

d. Only Argument II is strong

e. None if these

Solution: (b)

Explanation: Argument I is vague because it lacks proper reason. Arguments II and III are strong as they provide a proper answer to the question. Argument II explains the correct reason for putting a ban on such days. Also, during these ‘days’ the children can express their feelings, so Argument III is also correct.

Q4) Statement- Should smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol by the actors be completely banned in the movies in India?

Arguments-

I. Yes, this will significantly reduce the trend of smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol among the youth in India.

II. No, there should be no such ban on the creative pursuits of the filmmaker.

III. No, the films portray the society and hence such scenes should be an integral part of the movie, if the storyline demands so.

a. None of the Arguments are strong

b. Only Arguments I & II are strong

c. Only Arguments II and III are strong

d. Only Arguments I & III are strong

e. All the Arguments are strong

Solution: (d)

Explanation: Argument I is strong because such a reduction in this trend will be a desirable consequence. Argument II is weak as it is silent as to what effect the ban will have on the creative pursuits. Argument III is strong because the ban will take away from the power of the portrayal

Q5) Statement- Should we scrap the system of formal education beyond graduation?

Arguments-

I. Yes, it will mean getting employment at an early date.

II. No, it will mean lack of depth of knowledge.

a. If only Argument I is strong

b. If only Argument II is strong.

c. If either I or II is strong

d. If neither I nor II is strong

e. If both I and II is strong

Solution: (b)

Explanation: Argument I is vague because at present too, many fields are open to all after graduation. However, eliminating the post-graduate courses would abolish higher and specialized studies which lead to understanding things better and deeply. So, argument II is valid.

Conclusion

To sum up, since a variety of questions on analytical reasoning can be formed from this chapter, it becomes clear that you need to prepare this topic well. It will help you in clearing the basics of other similar topics as well. Candidates can expect 4 to 5 questions from this chapter in competitive exams.

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