 # Practice Input Output Questions and Answers

## Reasoning Chapter: Machine Input Output

Machine Input and Output questions frequently appear in government exams like IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk,IBPS RRB Officer Scale 1, SBI Clerk, SBI PO, RRB, and others. It is one of the most scoring sections of the exam. The answers to such questions are lengthy, and students end up devoting a significant amount of time to them. It might be lengthy but  a good grip over this topic can fetch you 5 marks collectively.

Before solving the questions, you must understand the logic behind the questions. It is important that you first understand the concept of machine input output and then start solving the questions so that you don’t get stuck in between. Let’s discuss the concept of machine input output, machine input output questions for Bank PO, machine input output questions with the help of some examples.

### What is Machine Input Output?

A word and numerical arrangement is given in the Input Output type of reasoning based question. The order of the words and numbers changes with each succeeding operation following a specific pattern. These actions are carried out in a loop or until a final arrangement is achieved. You must find the hidden pattern in the rearrangement and use it to answer the questions. The machine input questions in the reasoning section may be asked in various forms. This includes:

• Rearranging the data based on Order
• Rearranging the data based on Interchanging or shifting the position of word and numbers
• Rearranging the data based on mathematical calculations

### Types of Machine Input-Output Operations

There are essentially four types of operations that appear in exams in this topic. The following are the four operations:

Ordering: The words are either sorted alphabetically (forward/ backward) or numerically (ascending/descending). The order is usually determined by the initial letter of each word. It is sometimes based on the final letter of each word. In each phase, both words and numbers might be organised separately or concurrently. The rearrangement can begin on either the left or right side of the sentence, or even from both ends at the same time. The rearrangement could begin with a word, a number, or anything else.

Example: Input: Cat Rail Snow Moon Fear

Step 1: Snow Cat Rail Moon Fear

Step 2: Snow Rail Cat Moon Fear

Step 3: Snow Rail Moon Cat Fear

Step 4: Snow Rail Moon Fear Cat

This is the final arrangement and STEP IV is the last step for this input.

Solution: From the input step, Step IV, the given rearrangement has a pattern that can be followed. Observe carefully. The following patterns emerge from the rearrangement:

The rearrangement is occurring from left to right.

The rearrangement is occurring one word at a time.

The words are rearranged in descending alphabetical order, starting with the first letter of each word.

Point to Remember: To recognize the pattern, often it is necessary to look at the input, 1st, 2nd and final steps of the arrangement.

Mathematical Operations: In each step, several mathematical operations (such as squaring the number, adding the digits within the number, adding/subtracting/multiplying/dividing each number by a common number, etc.) are applied to the numbers.

Example: Input: 567 873 751 239 912 262 492 712 183 376

Step 1: 567 378 157 239 129 226 249 127 138 367

Step 2: 29 17 02 15 07 10 14 05 05 15

Step 3: 21 97 01 25 01 70 10 45 01 55

Step 4: 03 16 01 07 01 07 01 09 01 10

Step 5: 5 4 4 5 1

Step 6: 1 4 4 5 5

And Step 6 is the last step of the rearrangement as the desired arrangement is obtained.

Solution: To reach the final output in Step 6 certain steps are given. Starting from Step 1, the digits of each number are assembled in ascending order. Example: 567 is already in ascending order. Similarly, the second number 873 is rewritten as 378.

In Step 2, in any number, the middle digit is subtracted from the product of the first and last digit. Example: 5*7-6=29; 5*7= 35; 35-6=29. Similarly, in 378; 3*8-7=17.

In Step 3, the logic used is: Consider the pair from the left side, the first digits of the pair used to make the number. Say in the pair of 29 and 17, the first digit of 29 is 2 and the first digit of 17 is 1. Thus, by combining these two digits the first number obtained in Step III i.e., 21. The second number of the series is formed by combining the second digits of the same pair i.e., 97. From the pair 02 and 15, the third and fourth numbers are obtained i.e., 01 and 25.

In Step 4, the digits of a number are being added up. 2+1=3, 9+7=16, and so on.

In Step 5, you first make pairs of the numbers, then add up the individual digits of the pair starting from the left and then divide by 2. Example: 03 and 16; add the digits i.e., 0+3+1+6=10. The sum of the digits is 10 and now divide it by 2. Thus, 10/2=5.

Similarly, in 01 and 08; 0+1+0+7=8; 8/2=4.

In the last step, Step 6: All the numbers are rearranged in ascending order. So, the final output obtained is 1, 4, 4, 5, 5.

Shifting or interchanging: In this type, the positions of letters, alphabets, words, and other elements in the input change in response to questions, following a certain pattern that repeats itself, such as shift 1st character to last or interchange 1st & last, and so on.

Example: A computer rearranges a particular input using some operations 01, 02, 03, and 04.

Input: I am not coming home for dinner

Step 1: dinner not am coming home for I

Step 2: not dinner coming am home I for

Step 3: for coming dinner am home I not

Step 4: coming for am dinner home not IIf

Step 4 gives "I know you will not come back" what step will have "you back I come not will know"

Solution: Since the words remain unchanged here, so this is a case of either rearrangement or shifting. Each word denotes the following number.

I = 1, am = 2, not = 3, coming = 4, home = 5, for = 6, dinner = 7

Others: The input-output section may also include questions such as capitalising an alphabet, replacing an alphabet with a corresponding number, and so on. The operation is either reordering or shifting if the words (from the input) do not change in the output. Check for rearrangement first in this case. If the operation was not performed, the next step is to look for shifting. If the words (from the input) change in the output, the operation is either Mathematical (if numbers are used) or Other (if alphanumeric data is used).

Points to Remember:

• At most 'n-1' steps are required to rearrange and input with 'n' words/digits
• Count of words/digits arranged until the particular step is greater or equal to the particular step number
• We can't discover the previous step from a given step if input isn't provided
• While solving, do not write whole words. To save time, write the first letter of each word, or as many letters as you need to identify it uniquely.
• The first and most important step is to thoroughly read the question and understand the steps that the Output is based on
• You may be able to comprehend the pattern followed by merely glancing at Step 1 and Step 2.
• Use tabular form while solving the question as the length of the Input may be longer and may make the solution even more challenging
• If you try to answer these types of questions verbally, you may miss a few terms and procedures, leading to incorrect answers
• Once you've figured out the pattern in the question, try applying it to the input you've been provided to solve it

Machine Input-Output Questions New Pattern

Direction(Q.81-85): Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:

A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of an input and rearrangement.

Input:  Premature   78      surprise    60     90     68    manure   tan    fragile   40     96     wave

Step I:  40  premature 78 surprise  60 90 68 manure  tan 96 wave     fragile

Step II: 40 96  premature   78 surprise  60     90  68  tan wave manure fragile

Step III: 40  96  60 78  surprise 90  68  tan  wave premature   manure  fragile

Step IV: 40  96  60  90 78 68     tan  wave  surprise premature manure   fragile

Step V: 40  96  60 90     68 78     wave  tan  surprise   premature  manure   fragile

And Step V is the last step of the rearrangement of the above input.

As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.

Input: young 32 42 nose 55 value 70 worth paint 96 48 trees 74 59 zebra chase

Solution:

From the given input and final step it is understood that words are arranged in the alphabetical order. Numbers are arranged alternately in the increasing order and alternatively in decreasing order i.e. least number followed by highest number, second least number followed by second highest number and so on.

Input: young 32 42 nose 55 value 70 worth paint 96 48 trees 74 59 zebra chase

Step I: 32 young 42 nose 55 value 70 worth paint 96 48 trees 74 59 zebra chase

Step II: 32 96 young 42 55 value 70 worth paint 48 trees 74 59 zebra nose chase

Step III: 32 96 42 young 55 value 70 worth 48 trees 74 59 zebra paint nose chase

Step IV: 32 96 42 74 young 55 value 70 worth 48 59 zebra trees paint nose chase

Step V: 32 96 42 74 48 young 55 70 worth 59 zebra value trees paint nose chase

Step VI: 32 96 42 74 48 70 young 55 59 zebra worth value trees paint nose chase

Step VII: 32 96 42 74 48 70 55 59 zebra young worth value trees paint nose chase

126. Which of the following would be the final arrangement?

1) 32 96 42 74 48 young 55 70 worth 59 zebra value trees paint nose chase

2) 32 96 42 74 young 55 value 70 worth 48 59 zebra trees paint nose chase

3) 32 96 42 74 48 70 young 55 59 zebra worth value trees paint nose chase

4) 32 96 42 74 48 70 55 59 zebra young worth value trees paint nose chase

5) None of these

Ans: 4

132. In step III, which of the following words would be at seventh position from the left?

1) 96

2) 70

3) trees

4) value

5) None of these

Ans: 2

128. In step V, which of the following words would be at fifth position to the right of ninth from the left element?

1)trees

2)paint

3) nose

5) chase

4) zebra

Ans: 2

129. In step IV of the rearrangement, if 32 is related to 42 and 74 is related to 55 in a certain way, which of the following would 70 be related to, following the same pattern?

1) 48

2) 59

3) 96

4) 42

5) None of these

Ans: 1

130. Which of the following would last but one step?

1)V

2)VII

3)VIII

4)VI

5)None of these

Ans: 4

Directions (131-135): Study the given information and answer the questions:

A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of an input and rearrangement.

Input: 23      feather   28      broad     22     orange   33   private 36     negative     15     candle

Step I: 15      23     feather    28     22     orange   33   private   36     negative   candle     broad

Step II: candle   15     feather   28     22     orange 33     private 36     negative    broad     23

Step III: 33    candle 15     28     22     orange   private    36    negative   broad   23     feather

Step IV: negative    33    candle     15   28    orange    private    36     broad   23 feather       22

Step V: 28    negative 33    candle 15     private 36     broad 23     feather 22     orange

Step VI: private   28   negative   33   candle   15    broad   23    feather    22   orange   36

And Step VI is the last step of the rearrangement of the above input.

As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.

Input: 25    bandage    38    permanent    18     office     33     urn    15    queen   8    gang

131. In which step the elements ‘38 18 urn’ are found in the same order?

1) Step I

2) Step II

3) Step III

4) Step IV

5)Step VI

Ans: 4

132. In step III, which of the following elements would be at 2nd to the left of 5th from the right end?

1) 18

2) urn

3) queen

4) 8

5) bandage

Ans: 1

133. How many steps required completing the above arrangement?

1) Three

2) Four

3) Five

4) Seven

5) None of these.

Ans: 5

134. Which of the following would be the step V after arrangement?

1) 18 permanent 33 gang  15 38 urn 25 bandage office 8 queen

2) permanent 18 33 gang 15 38 urn bandage 25 office 8 queen

3) 18 permanent 33 gang 15 38 urn bandage 25 office queen 8

4) 18 permanent 33 gang 15 38 urn bandage 25 office 8 queen

5) None of these

Ans: 4

135. In step VI, ‘urn’ is related to ‘permanent’ and ‘office’ is related to ‘queen’. In the same way ‘gang’ is related to?

1) urn

2) 18

3) permanent

4) bandage

5) None of these

Ans: 4

Solution:

For word arrangement- Words are arranged according to ascending order given in English dictionary. In the first step the words which come first according to English dictionary are arranged first to extreme right. And in the second step, the next word according to English dictionary is arranged to extreme left. And this process is continued in further steps.

For number arrangement- Numbers are arranged according to ascending order. There are three odd numbers and three even numbers. In the first three steps odd numbers are arranged in ascending order first to extreme left end then to extreme right. And in the last three steps even numbers are arranged in ascending order.

Input:  25     bandage   38   permanent   18   office      33     urn     15   queen     8 gang

Step I:  15  25     38  permanent  18  office  33   urn   queen  8  gang  bandage

Step II:  gang   15  38 permanent  18 office 33   urn   queen    8    bandage 25

Step III:  33 gang 15 38   permanent    18    urn   queen   8 bandage   25   office

Step IV:  permanent   33 gang 15 38 18 urn queen   bandage   25   office   8

Step V: 18 permanent 33   gang   15   38   urn bandage 25 office 8 queen

Step VI:  urn  18   permanent 33    gang 15   bandage  25   office   8   queen  38

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