Directions (69 - 75): Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. Paragraph 1: Although the Himalayas often feature in Western imaginations as a land beyond the reach of capitalism and the cash-economy, this is mostly a myth in Nepal today, and to some degree it has always been so. Remittances — money sent home from those working outside — have been important in mountain villages since at least the 19th century, when the British began to recruit Nepalis, especially from certain mountain ethnic groups, for the Indian Army. Seasonal labor work in India, with which Nepal shares an open border, has long provided an important source of livelihood that supplements subsistence farming. Paragraph 2: But migration has exploded over the past several decades, particularly after the government eased access to passports in 1991, and it has affected communities from Nepal’s lowland plains all the way up to its high mountains. Millions of Nepalis leave the country for jobs in factories, construction, and service in Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, or the United Arab Emirates. Others migrate domestically for jobs in Kathmandu and regional cities, although these generally pay less. Men from ethnic Sherpa communities like Simigaun’s (a local Nepali village in the Himalayas) often go for seasonal work in the trekking and mountaineering industries centered on the famed Annapurna and Everest regions. Paragraph 3: For families in earthquake-affected areas like Simigaun, the foremost priority today is to rebuild homes. Although the government provides up to NRs. 300,000 per household for reconstruction, grant disbursements have been slow and the sum is generally a fraction of the cost of replacing a house. Expenses are exacerbated by remoteness; according to a study by Amnesty International, the price of a brick produced in the capital, Kathmandu, can double by the time it reaches a village in Dolakha, the district where Simigaun is located. Simigaun residents also spend significant sums on their children’s education. There is only one school in town, which only goes up to Class 5. Older children must study in boarding schools in lower-lying bazaars or in Kathmandu. Healthcare is also expensive. There is one under-equipped government-health post in the village, but for any serious illnesses villagers must travel to the district hub, Charikot, or Kathmandu. Those who can afford it often opt for private hospitals, since the quality of care in government hospitals is seen as inferior. Paragraph 4: While many migrants return to their villages after their time abroad, many others choose to settle in cities, where services like health and education are more readily accessible. Rural-to-urban migration became significant during the Maoist insurgency from 1996-2006, when people fled violence in villages, and it has continued as remittance income allows rural people to buy land in cities. Many Simigaun villagers have ended up in the Kapan neighborhood of Kathmandu, a chaotic jumble of new construction, near to the majestic Bouddhanath stupa that acts as a center of gravity for the city’s Buddhist communities. Paragraph 5: Although the benefits of migration are attractive, there are also significant costs. Migration can split up families, as spouses and parents spend years at a time away from loved ones. The work can be financially risky, since migrants must pay hefty sums to manpower agencies to secure jobs, and sometimes arrive abroad only to find that wages are less than originally promised. Working conditions can also be dangerous. Well over 5,000 Nepali workers have died in Qatar alone since 2008, many of them working on construction projects. Daily flights from the Middle East to Kathmandu carry returning migrants as well as the coffins of their fallen peers. Paragraph 6: In response to the problems associated with migration, the Nepali government and NGOs alike have hailed the creation of local employment opportunities as an important alternative. Many development projects aim to introduce new crops to commercialize agriculture — on which 76 percent of households depend — so that young rural people do not need to migrate. In high mountain areas where large-scale farming and transportation are made difficult by the terrain, high-value crops that can be sold in small volumes are seen as particularly promising. These include fruit and nut trees, but also a variety of other crops like vegetables, mushrooms, and even medicinal plants.
Choose the word which has the same meaning as the word EXACERBATED as used in the above passage.