India, a country with a centuries-old heritage of medical science, first became familiar with the modern systems of medicine in the 17th century. India became an independent nation in 1947 and became a Federal Republic in 1950.There have been various developments in the health sector in the post independence era. But problems like higher population density, low socioeconomic status of a significant number of people and low literacy rate in some parts of the country, have resulted in poor health indicators. India has a rich, centuries-old heritage of medical and health sciences. The approach of the ancient Indian medical system was one of holistic treatment. The history of healthcare in India can be traced to the Vedic times (5000 BCE), in which a description of the Dhanwanthari, the Hindu god of medicine, emerged. Atharvaveda, one of the four Vedas, is considered to have developed into Ayurveda, a traditional Indian form of holistic medicine. The philosophy of Ayurveda, “Charaka Samhita” (the famous treatise on Medicine compiled by Charaka), and the surgical skill enunciated by Sushrutha, the father of Indian surgery, bear testimony to the ancient tradition of scientific healthcare amongst the Indian people. Historically, the most outstanding hospitals in India were those built by King Ashoka (273-232 BCE). Medicine based on Indian medical principles was taught in the Universities of Taxila and Nalanda. Over the past decade, healthcare services available in India have increased dramatically. The doctor-to-population ratio in India is 1:2148. The infant mortality rate is 64 per 1,000 live births. The overall mortality rate has declined from 27.4 in 1991 to 8 per 1,000 population in 2002, and life expectancy at birth has increased from 37.2 years to 60.6 years over the same time period. Since independence, considerable progress has been achieved in the promotion of health in India. Smallpox has been eliminated, and mortality from cholera and other related diseases has decreased. But episodes of cholera continue to recur, and the incidence of tuberculosis is not insignificant. The situation in regard to public sanitation, preventive healthcare, control of communicable diseases and health education needs to be improved. In addition to the diseases of poverty and malnutrition, noncommunicable diseases related to urbanization, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and cancer is a cause of concern. Road traffic accidents, geriatric problems and complications of autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are also on the increase.

Consider the following Statements about Mission Indradhanush and choose the option with correct Statements.

(1) Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014.

(2) It covers only those children who are not vaccinated at all.

(3) Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) is one of the vaccines that are provided under the mission.

A Only 1 Correct Answer Incorrect Answer
B 1 & 2 Correct Answer Incorrect Answer
C 1 & 3 Correct Answer Incorrect Answer
D Only 3 Correct Answer Incorrect Answer
E 1, 2, & 3 Correct Answer Incorrect Answer


Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014 to cover all those children who have been partially vaccinated or not vaccinated during routine immunisation rounds. Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV), Rotavirus Vaccine (RVV), Rubella Vaccine as Measles Rubella (MR) Vaccine, Adult JE Vaccine, Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV), Tetanus and Adult Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine are the new vaccines that have been added.